Sunday, March 15, 2020
Applying Learning Models in a Particular Setting There are different ways to achieve the desired behavior in children. Researchers have developed a number of theories and learning models that provide valuable insights into peculiarities of peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and learning. Each theory can be applicable in many settings but there are also cases when only certain models can be employed, as the rest of them will be inefficient.Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Applying Learning Models in a Particular Setting specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More In the present case, it is possible to consider the following learning models: generalized imitation and over-imitation, vicarious reinforcement, operant learning model as well as social learning of aggression.Ã It is clear that spanking is the least appropriate method to show the child that stealing is bad. BanduraÃ¢â¬â¢s research shows that aggression leads to aggressive behavior in the majority of cases (Hart Kritsonis, 2006). Thus, children who observed violent behavior simply imitated it in similar situations. Notably, boys and girls were almost equally aggressive. Hence, spanking Ben will make the boy think that any inappropriate behavior should lead to aggression (spanking, in this case). The boy will use the same method when he will face situations in which somebody will act inappropriately. Ben will inevitably spank other children, as he will not know any other way to react to improper behavior. This can have even more serious implications as the behavior learned in the childhood may remain during adulthood. Ben may think that aggression and physical violence can be used in many situations in the future. More so, spanking is also impossible to utilize in the present case. According to Bandura, if aggressive behavior is accompanied by certain type of reinforcement (for example, social approval), this behavior will be used in similar settings (Hart Kritsonis, 2006). As for the pres ent case, the reaction of the owner of the shop can be regarded as social approval. The owner says that BenÃ¢â¬â¢s caregiver should spank the boy. Hence, Ben will see that many people (at least, two adults) think that spanking (aggression, violence) is the most acceptable way to respond to inappropriate behavior. Clearly, it is better to use another social learning model to teach Ben that stealing is bad. Although punishment can be employed, it should not be associated with violence or aggression. At that, it can be more appropriate to utilize reinforcement in this case. It is necessary to evaluate a number of learning models to choose the most appropriate one.Advertising Looking for critical writing on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More It is possible to start with over-imitation and generalization. Children often imitate other peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s (often adultsÃ¢â¬â¢) behavior even without any reinforcement (Chance, 2008). This can be explained by historical preconditioning as peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s survival often depended on their ability to imitate certain behavior of models. However, in the present case, the boy does not imitate his caregiverÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior and does not follow her instructions. Hence, BenÃ¢â¬â¢s desire to have a gum is stronger than his willingness to imitate certain behavior.Ã Operant learning model can be applied in this case and lead to positive results. This learning model implies the use of positive and negative reinforcement as well as negative and positive punishment (Chance, 2008). Skinner, who was one of the pioneers in this field, conducted a number of experiments with mice placed in, the so-called, SkinnerÃ¢â¬â¢s box. Thus, when the mouseÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior was appropriate positive reinforcer was provided or negative reinfocer was taken away. Punishment was also used. Thus, it is believed that the use of these tools helps to achieve the necessary goals. In the present case, the boy can be punished, which will teach him that certain behavior (stealing) can lead to undesirable consequences (punishment). Later, positive reinforcement can be used to show that desirable behavior can be rewarded (by buying some fruit or something of value to Ben). In the present case, vicarious reinforcement can also be employed. Fox and Bailenson (2009) note that this model has proved to be effective in many settings. Thus, people (especially children) are more likely to imitate certain behavior when they observe that another person is rewarded for it. Likewise, people do not behave in a certain way if they see that others have been punished for it. Fox and Bailenson (2009) conduct an experiment with the use of technology; they note that the model is efficient and can be applicable in many cases.Ã However, in the case with Ben, it is better to use a combination of operant learning and vicarious reinforcement. It is possible to develop a modification p rogram to teach Ben that stealing is bad, based on the two models. Thus, in the first place, it is possible to work out some preventive measures. It is necessary to be more attentive when shopping with Ben. It is necessary to discuss his wants and explain why he cannot have this or that product. Thus, the caregiver should have explained to Ben why he could not have the gum. The boy should understand why he could not have the gum (which can be a punishment, response to certain health problem, desire to be healthier and so on).Advertising We will write a custom critical writing sample on Applying Learning Models in a Particular Setting specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Besides, it is important to make Ben understand that stealing is bad. Vicarious punishment and reinforcement can be used in this case. It is possible to watch some cartoons and movies with Ben. These should be stories concerning stealing. The caregiver should talk to Ben and discuss the reasons why stealing is bad. It is possible to discuss the feelings of the person whose things have been stolen and ask Ben if he felt fine in such situations. Of course, the thief should be punished in the cartoons and movies watched. It can be beneficial to watch a video where a child is praised for behaving in a proper way. All these materials can be found online. Clearly, it is necessary to undertake certain steps while being in the shop. BenÃ¢â¬â¢s caregiver can explain to Ben that stealing is bad and that his behavior is inappropriate. Ben should say sorry and it is possible to ask him to explain why he took the gum after all. Of course, Ben will give the gum back to the owner. BenÃ¢â¬â¢s caregiver should praise the boy for such a good and brave behavior. She should tell Ben that it is quite difficult to confess in such bad deeds and only brave boys can do that. Of course, it is important to add that brave boys also never steal, as they prefer talking every thing over and trying to obtain what they want without shameful cheating. In conclusion, it is possible to note that the present case can be an example of the use of a combination of vicarious reinforcement and operant learning model. The boy has to learn a lesson that stealing is bad. Punishment as well as vicarious reinforcement and positive reinforcement can be used to make Ben understand that stealing is inappropriate. It is also important to note that BenÃ¢â¬â¢s caregiver should be more attentive and more informative next time. The boy should understand why exactly he cannot have this or that product. Reference List Chance, P. (2008). Learning and behavior: Active learning edition. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. Fox, J., Bailenson, J.N. (2009). Virtual self-modeling: The effects of vicarious reinforcement and identification on exercise behaviors. Media Psychology, 12, 1-25.Advertising Looking for critical writing on education? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Hart, K.E., Kritsonis, W.A. (2006). Critical analysis of an original writing on social learning theory: Imitation of film-mediated aggressive models by: Albert Bandura, Dorothea Ross and Sheila A. Ross (1963). National Forum of Applied Educational Research Journal, 19(3), 1-7.
Friday, February 28, 2020
Humanness in the Film Nell - Essay Example This sets her apart from the rest of the Ã¢â¬Å"civilized world.Ã¢â¬ Yet despite the difficulties in accepting and adapting to the new world she faces, despite the recent loss she experienced, despite the loss of the feeling of belonging, Nell still manages to push herself to learn to at least understand the new surroundings she is brought into. This presents viewers with several issues about the development of an individual as a human, and how the people react to things that are beyond the norms of the society. While one may obviously focus on the character of Nell to provide answers to these questions, one should also consider that while Nell portrays several qualities of a human despite being Ã¢â¬Å"superficiallyÃ¢â¬ different, the two doctors, Jerry and Paula, represent the society's standards of what it takes to be human. There is a general consensus that for an individual to be considered human, one 1) should know proper socialization; 2) should display proper nature and nurture, and; 3) should be able to blend well within a society through common language and set of values. It is interesting that despite Nell displaying these three major characteristics, society still views her as Ã¢â¬Å"abnormal,Ã¢â¬ and this is despite the society's grandstanding about diversity. Nell obviously possesses proper socialization, proper nature and nurture, and the ability to blend within a society through common language and set of values --- and despite these qualities being different from what is considered standard, Nell is human and society should view her as such. Nell knows proper socialization. According to the observations and findings of Dr. Lovell and Dr. Olsen, Nell's Ã¢â¬Å"personalÃ¢â¬ language is a product of her life-long interaction with her now deceased mother and twin sister. Nell's language is English, and just appears to be a bit gibberish because she adapted her mother's aphasic words due to the paralysis of half of her face after suffering from a stroke. Even though the bigger society may not see this as the most common example of proper interaction, the way Nell was able to fully integrate herself in the lives of the only two people she has ever known is already a presentation of her ability to socialize. Furthermore, even when presented with a new environment when the two doctors who are trying to help her first bring her to town, she is immediately able to befriend the sheriff's depressed wife. Even though society may still see these interactions as too limited to really show Nell's social skills, it does not necessarily mean that society's standards should be the benchmark for everything. It is clear that Nell is able to Ã¢â¬Å"attemptÃ¢â¬ to communicate to other Ã¢â¬Å"humansÃ¢â¬ who are obviously, to speak in scientific terms, of the same species as her --- which is somewhat a sure display of her unspoken awareness, and acknowledgment that yes, she is human, and yes she can try further. Nell displays prop er nature and nurture. When Nell shows how she treats her twin sister's remains with love, respect, and emotion, one can easily see how human she is. No other species in this planet can show such natural attachment of emotions to a family aside from humans. In addition, when one pays attention to her mental flashbacks, it is obvious that she was nurtured well even within just a small family since Nell's memories of her dead mother and sister are so fondly remembered even when she is already in a different world. Nell is also able to trust a person who shows her concern,
Wednesday, February 12, 2020
War And Civilization - Assignment Example Wars have been the violent catalyst for changes throughout history. Wars are, however, part of the agencies that help bring changes and progress in human life and the world. It might sound absurd, but wars are part of the human life activities. Wars simulate national growth, advancement in information technology, medical research, and solve some of the most complex political differences. They evoke bravery and heroism among communities and nations. In medical and health care systems, war has been the subject of appreciation as it has promoted human civilization. It is indeed a catalyst that has brought advances in medical science. Most of the chemical medicines and surgical techniques used in clinics and hospitals were not discovered when people were at peace in their homes. They were discovered and advanced when the need arose particularly when casualties of wars were in dire need of medication. Diseases such as Pestilent that evolved out of the war needed the rapid response with th e appropriate medical treatment (Smith, 2006). There are indeed several contributions of war to human civilization. The US, for example, had economic gains for its people from both World War I and II. If one looks the wars as agents of world peace, they did succeed in promoting peace and keeping the world safe. World War II eliminated Hitler who was a threat to the peace and unity of many people. In the 1973 war, Israel won a battle that enabled it to expand boundaries and acquire land that was previously a forbidden territory.
Friday, January 31, 2020
Inequality in the UK its effect on the national economy - Essay Example Why should economists care about inequality in the distribution of incomes? Poverty and economic inequality are intimately bound with one another both as a policy or an analytical issue. Economic well-being and income distribution are related as demonstrated in the societal understanding of justice and human rights, and, therefore, render economic equality an intrinsic value. High levels of economic equity are associated with desirable social outcomes especially in the realms of health and crime (Andrew and Meen2006). The EU defines poverty as living on less than half the average national income, as such, irrespective of the average income, the greater the income inequality, the higher levels of poverty in a country. The definition of the extent of poverty depends on both the level of a societyÃ¢â¬â¢s income and the distribution of income. Therefore, societal standards or norms of essential needs in a society are determined by the middle class (Brueckner, Thisse and Zenou 1999). In the case of two societies where the bottom segments have the same level of income, poverty is more prevalent in the in the society where income is more unequally distributed. The bottom quintile of the unequal society will be more isolated from the middle quintile and will, therefore, be further from meeting the standards of that society. As a result, more members of this bottom quintile will be stuck in poverty (Beroube 2005).
Thursday, January 23, 2020
The Third Bank of the River Beginning shortly before the turn of the last century, there was a noticeable trend towards the ambiguous in modern Brazilian literature. Writers such as Machado de Assis and Jorge Amado have both explored the use of the unstated and the forced compromise between extremes that have grown to be so crucial to the modernist movement. No Brazilian author, however, has mastered the compromise quite like JoÃ £o GuimarÃ £es Rosa, a man who was once described as not only leading, but preceding the reader "to a place where there is discord and cacophony under which there is a strange harmonyÃ¢â¬ ¦the third bank of the riverÃ¢â¬ ¦the land every soul craves for." In his collection of short stories, Primeiras EstÃ ³rias (1962), Rosa pays particularly close attention to ambiguity as a main theme in Brazilian backland writing. First translated to English in 1968 under the title First Stories, Primeiras EstÃ ³rias, and in particular, "The Third Bank of the River," is in many ways the defining work of the Brazilian short story. Carl Jung once said "the confrontation of the two positions [of opposites] generates a tension charged with energy and creates a living, third thing."1 In "The Third Bank of the River," JoÃ £o GuimarÃ £es Rosa does just that by first exploring these separate, symbolic opposites in the lives of members of the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s family. He then crafts, out of the conflict, a third position which can be, at best, described as a compromise between the two extremes. Often times, these extremes are the very definitions of characterization we come to expect in a short story, and, by blurring these lines, Rosa is able to also blur "The Third Bank of the River" into a work of ambiguous and allegorical nature. By never exactly defining the third essence that is created, the author is able to explore this clearly important topic in greater depth. The importance of the crossing is that, in every case the author presents, it represents the journey from one position to its opposite, continuing un til the characters reach their final destination: the third, intermediate situation. It is in this way that fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s crossing has a profound effect on the family (most notably the narrator) and the way they conduct the rest of their lives. The important thing to recognize immediately about "The Third Bank of the River" is that it can either be read as a literal retelling of the events or as a metaphor concerning the death of a loved one.
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Pregnancy is the common we always see as a result of marriage and love. For some people, it is a good news to be pregnant, but it is also a very bad and unexpected thing. There are many reasons to says that it is appropriate to have a baby.There are many difficulties to have an abortion in the past; nowadays, couples can do that legally. As the abortion become a common thing, many people abuse and see it in an improper perspective, which results in loosening their aborting decisions. Abortion comes in many forms because of different reasons causes it. The biggest reason which causes abortion is sex-selection. Sex-selection has been practiced in the past; but in the modern world, they reduced much but some are still doing it silently. A very clear example of how abortion is practicing nowadays is from the article of Artemisia Ng., when she mentioned a story refers to the abortion that happens in China. In Ã¢â¬Å"Protecting women and girls in China, where one child per family is the rule Ã¢â¬â and a boy the preferenceÃ¢â¬ , Chai was a protester who was being wanted in China. Artemisia Ng. included ChaiÃ¢â¬â¢s thought in the article: Ã¢â¬Å"Chai was referring to ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s one-child policy, in which officials force pregnant women to abort their babies. In place since 1979, the Ã¢â¬Å"one childÃ¢â¬ rule has prompted many Chinese to practice sex selection, using ultrasound screenings to determine whether the fetus is a boy or girl and then aborting females or abandoning them after birth to orphanages. More than 35,000 forced abortions were performed in China each day in 2009.Ã¢â¬ ( Ng.) This information is really shocking; just in China, that is an average of over ten millions of babies is being killed each year. Since the Chinese refer to male babies, the ratio between boy and girls will increase dramatically. The effect of this abortion affect the geography factors; but more importantly, it is breaking the society morals. New technologies may be the cure to end abortion in developed countries. As in the essays by Rajani Bhatia, United States has discovered the new method to have a baby without a wife or husband. This is the solution to eliminate the issue which stated above, society morals. In Ã¢â¬Å"Constructing Gender from the Inside Out: Sex-Selection Practices in the United StatesÃ¢â¬ , Rajani Bhatia states factors that makes the sex-selection in United States become normal. According to the author, one of the factor is: Ã¢â¬Å"They are the emergence of a second generation of medicalized sex-selection technologies performed prior to pregnancy, the increasing publicity about these technologies in the popular media, and the formation of active Internet support groups for individuals who desire to preselect the sex of their childrenÃ¢â¬ (Bhatia). The other factor that would result couples to have an abortion is the disease or disability of the future baby. Parents often decide not to have the baby if they get bad results from the analyzing of their babyÃ¢â¬â¢s health. Sometimes, in analyzing, if there are posibilities that the baby have disease or disability, the couples may also abort the baby instead of taking the risk. The immoral here is that if the baby is healthy, then they have killed one innocent life. Analyzing and screening the baby before giving birth has became a trend all over the world; that makes the possibilities of abortion quickly increase. This factor might be the reason for people to use to justify their abortion action, make it become less significant. But the truth is that it is still an abortion; every child deserve to live. Work Cited Bhatia Rajani. Ã¢â¬Å"Constructing Gender from the Inside Out: Sex-Selection Practices in the United States.Ã¢â¬ Feminist Studies Summer 2010, Vol. 36, Iss. 2; pg. 260, ProQuest. Web 21 Nov. 2010. Artemisia Ng. Ã¢â¬Å"Protecting women and girls in China, where one child per family is the rule Ã¢â¬â and a boy the preference. Ã¢â¬ The Christian Science Monitor 16 Aug. 2010, ProQuest National Newspapers Expanded, ProQuest. Web. 21 Nov. 2010.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Importance of Economic Market Structures Before an organization or investor makes a strategic decision to enter a product in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, a thorough market analysis is vital to fully comprehend the domestic and international demand, current suppliers, entry and exit barriers present, and cost of production for the product or service being provided. The culmination of this investigation identifies the market structure the product resides in, associated potential long-run profitability, cost efficiency, survivability, and incentives for future entrepreneurs. This paper will describe the characteristics of four such market structures: perfect competition, monopolistic competition, oligopoly, monopoly while providing an illustrativeÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦It is important to keep in mind that this is a theoretical model. Real data does not exist, and the model does not precisely describe reality.Ã¢â¬ (Amacher Pate, 2012) The perfect competition model is based on def ined assumptions which prevent its adaptation into a real-life economy; however it is often described as the baseline model to compare all other structures. These assumptions are: (1.) Large volume of buyers and sellers: A perfect competition market has many buyers and sellers so none are able to influence the market. (2.) Homogenous products: All producers generate the same product with no differentiation. (3.) Excellent or perfect knowledge: Buyers and sellers have an extensive amount of information about the product and other producers. (4.) Free entry and exit into the market: Firms are able to allocate resources in and out of this market easily with little expense. (5.) Firms are able to quickly to respond to a changing consumer demand. (6.)Workers and other resources are easily moved in and out of the industry. While there is not one organization which is able to meet all of these assumptions, one of the best examples to illustrate a perfect competition market structure is the agricultural model. If a farmer produces one field of corn out of literally thousands harvested per year, it will not affect the market supply or price if he or she produces moreShow MoreRelatedImportance Of Economic Market Structure3664 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pages Importance of Economic Market Structures Kevin Green Economics 204 Principles of Microeconomics Charles Fanning 8-3-14 Importance of Economic Market Structure In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, before an investor or any organization makes a strategic decision to begin production of a product, a market analysis is done to get vital information and to thoroughly understand the domestic or international demand, current suppliers, entry and exit barriers into a market, and the cost of producing a productRead MoreImportance Of Economic Market Structure3611 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesImportance of Economic Market Structure In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s economy, before an investor or any organization makes a strategic decision to begin production of a product, a market analysis is done to get vital information and to thoroughly understand the domestic or international demand, current suppliers, entry and exit barriers into a market, and the cost of producing a product or service. 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